Victoria


Victoria
   1) (1819-1901)
   Granddaughter of George III, and only child of George III's fourth son, Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, by Mary Louisa Victoria, daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Cobourg-Saalfield; born at Kensington Palace, May 24, 1819. Succeeded to the throne on the death of her uncle, William IV, 1837. Married to Prince Albert of Saxe-Cobourg 1840.
   Index: Sy Accession of, 48. Md Selects Ottawa (Bytown) as seat of government, 85; jubilee address to, 283.
   Bib.: Works: Leaves from a Journal of our Life in the Highlands; Letters of Queen Victoria; Royal Correspondence. For biog., see Fawcett, Life of Queen Victoria; Gurney, Childhood of Queen Victoria; Holmes, Queen Victoria Lee, Queen Victoria: a Biography; Oliphant, Queen Victoria: a Personal Sketch.
   2) Capital of British Columbia, and formerly capital of the colony of Vancouver Island. Founded in 1843 as Fort Camosun, afterwards Fort Victoria, the latter name in honour of the queen. The city was incorporated in 1862, and the old fort finally demolished, 1864.
   Index: D Founded by James Douglas in 1843, 146; built on site of Indian village, known as Camosun, 175; McNeill's exploration, 1837, 176; Sir George Simpson's approval of the site, 176; Douglas examines locality, 1842, and reports favourably, 176; establishment of fort at Camosun approved, 176; advantages of the site, 177; Douglas sails, March 1, 1843, from Fort Vancouver with an expedition to establish the post, 177; lands at Clover Point, 177; site selected and building operations begun, 178; fort and stockade completed, 179; Charles Ross in command with Roderick Finlayson as assistant, 180; natives attack the fort, 182; early shipping, 183; name of port changed to Fort Victoria, 183; visit of frigate America, 183; American whalers touch at, for supplies, 184; H.M.S. Constance arrives at Esquimalt, 184; visit of frigate Fisguard, 184; surveying ships Herald and Pandora, 184; trade gravitating from Fort Vancouver to Victoria, 184; farming operations, 185; dairying, 185; supplying Russian ports, 186; momentous events of 1849, final removal of chief emporium of company from Fort Vancouver to Victoria, 188; Helmcken, afterwards Douglas's son-in-law, arrives, 189; effect of gold discoveries, 189-190; coal mining, 190-191; the Hudson's Bay Company and colonization, 192-195; early settlers of, 196-197; town laid out in streets, 1852, 198; population in 1853, 198; during the gold fever, 224-225; gold-miners boom the town, 225; population rises and falls with the fortunes of the gold-fields, 271; proposed waterworks, building of wagon roads, education, first newspaper, British Colonist, 1858, 271.
   Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names; Begg, History of British Columbia.

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